A 2003 study on the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in livestock at 29 county and 3 large state agricultural fairs in the United States found that E. coli O157:H7 could be isolated from 13.8 percent of beef cattle, 5.9 percent of dairy cattle, 3.6 percent of pigs, 5.2 percent of sheep, and 2.8 percent of goats. Over seven percent of pest fly pools also tested positive for E. coli O157:H7.

Legislation and the implementation of guidelines and regulations will greatly reduce the likelihood of zoonotic disease outbreaks in North Carolina, but most states have not yet enacted the same measures, and outbreaks will continue to happen.